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儿童医院新生儿科

作者: 更新时间:2011-04-15 21:18

有孩子的出生以后,经常抱着,也未曾形成抱癖,而是性格特别好。抱着时表情愉快,不停地咿咿呀呀,因有事顾不上抱时,他自己躺在床上不断地运动四肢,四处张望,口中常“念念有词”,身体发育也显著地超过同龄孩子。这是因为抱着的孩子看到的事物多,躺着的孩子光看天花板、房顶,缺乏神经发育必需的各种丰富的刺激。因此,抱孩子时要同孩子说话、唱歌,用眼睛温柔地注视孩子,轻轻地晃动,这种感情交流,对孩子的大脑发育,精神发育以及身体生长都有着极大的好处。 新生儿的抱法大都采用手托法和腕托法两种:手托法是用左手托住婴儿的背、脖子和头,用右手托住婴儿的屁股和腰部。腕托法是轻轻地将婴儿的头放在左胳膊弯中,左小臂护住婴儿的头部,左腕和左手护背部和腰部,右小臂护婴儿的腿部,右手护婴儿的屁股和腰部。
旧的传统观念认为新生儿不能抱,抱了易形成抱癖,对大人和小孩都没什么好处,这种想法是不正确  新生儿
的。现在的观点是新生儿应该抱。经常抱着的孩子体形会变得优美,这也是婴儿的运动之一。婴儿的啼哭多是由于身体某个部位不舒服引起的,有时是一种正常的运动,不是因为不抱而哭。
After having child's birth, is hugging frequently, also has not formed holds the hobby, but is the disposition is specially good. Is hugging when the expression is happy, does not stop the chirp chirp to be open-mouthed, when has the matter is too busy to think of hugs, he lies down on the bed unceasingly the movement four limbs, looks around in all directions, in the mouth often “mumbles”, the physical growth also obviously surpasses the same age child. This is because is hugging the child saw the thing are many, is lying down the child light looked the ceiling, the roof, lack the nerve growth essential each kind of rich stimulation. Therefore, hugs when the child must speak with the child, sing, gazes at the child gently with the eye, rocks gently, this kind of sentimental exchange, to child's cerebrum growth, the spiritual growth as well as the body grows has the enormous advantage. The newborn holds the law to use the hand to hold the law and the wrist mostly holds the law two kinds: The hand holds the law is with the left hand cradling baby's back, the neck and the head, with right hand cradling baby's buttocks and waist. The wrist holds the law is places gently baby's head the left arm curved, the left small arm protects baby's forehead, the left wrist and the left hand protect the back and the waist, the right small arm protects baby's thigh, the right hand protects baby's buttocks and the waist. the old traditional ideas thought that the newborn could not hug, hugs easily to form holds the hobby, did not have any advantage to adult and the children, this idea was not correct newborn . Present's viewpoint is the newborn should hug. Is hugging frequently the child build will become exquisite, this also will be one of baby's movements. The baby cries aloud many are because bodily some spot is uncomfortable causes, sometimes is one kind of normal movement, is not because does not hug cries.

相关知识:

新生儿多久洗一次澡?在家洗就可以吗?

对健康的新生儿,只要条件许可,生后第二天起就可以每日洗一次澡,不但能清洁皮肤,还可以加速血液循环,促进生长发育。对体重轻、生活能力低的新生儿或因室温低,无条件每天洗澡的,应每日洗脸。 
新生儿的洗澡盆最好专用。洗前先将盆刷干净,妈妈的个人卫生也要先作好,再将大毛巾、衣服、包布、尿布等准备好。室温最好在摄氏24度,水温约为37至38度,或用成人肘弯试水,感到不冷不热即可。
给小儿洗澡,动作要轻柔敏捷。以脐部为界,分两部分洗。先使小儿仰卧,妈妈用左手托住小儿枕部,拇指及中指将小儿双耳向前按,贴于耳前脸上,以防洗脸水灌入耳内。小儿臀腰部夹在成人腋下,背部躺在成人左前臀上,固定后,右手用小毛巾浸温开水,先洗双眼分泌物(自内眼角向外眼角擦洗)、耳后、颈、胸、背、双腋窝、双上肢及双手。新生儿的手掌抓得很紧,应掰开洗净。擦洗腹部时,不要弄湿脐带。此后,将小儿倒过来,使小儿的头顶贴在妈妈的左胸前,用左手抓住小儿的左大腿,右手用浸水的小毛巾先洗会阴腹股沟及臀部(女婴一定要从前向后洗),最后洗下肢及双脚。一般不需用肥皂。


新生儿怎么使用抗生素?

新生儿期一些重要器官尚未完全发育成熟,在此期间其生长发育随日龄增加而迅速变化,因此新生儿感染使用抗菌药物时需注意以下事项。
1. 新生儿期肝、肾均未发育成熟,肝酶的分泌不足或缺乏,肾清除功能较差,因此新生儿感染时应避免应用毒性大的抗菌药物,包括主要经肾排泄的氨基糖苷类、万古霉素、去甲万古霉素等,以及主要经肝代谢的氯霉素。确有应用指征时,必须进行血药浓度监测,据此调整给药方案,个体化给药,以确保治疗安全有效。不能进行血药浓度监测者,不可选用上述药物。
2. 新生儿期避免应用或禁用可能发生严重不良反应的抗菌药物(参见表1.3)。可影响新生儿生长发育的四环素类、喹诺酮类禁用,可导致脑性核黄疸及溶血性贫血的磺胺类药和呋喃类药避免应用。
3. 新生儿期由于肾功能尚不完善,主要经肾排出的青霉素类、头孢菌素类等β内酰胺类药物需减量应用,以防止药物在体内蓄积导致严重中枢神经系统毒性反应的发生。
4. 新生儿的体重和组织器官日益成熟,抗菌药物在新生儿的药代动力学亦随日龄增长而变化,因此使用抗菌药物时应按日龄调整给药方案。

来源:http://baidu.com/